1 CONSTRUCTION OF TAVANTOLGOI-GASHUUNSUKHAIT ROAD TO BE INTENSIFIED WWW.MONTSAME.MN PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      2 OVER 30 MEASURES PLANNED FOR REDUCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION WWW.MONTSAME.MN PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      3 MONGOLIA SAYS IT EARNS OVER 169 MLN USD FROM COAL EXPORTS TO CHINA IN JAN WWW.HELLENICSHIPPINGNEWS.COM  PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      4 RUSSIA’S GAZPROM TO START CHINA GAS PIPELINE BY DECEMBER 1 WWW.RT.COM PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      5 MONGOLIA'S FOREIGN TRADE UP 41.6 PCT IN JAN. WWW.XINHUANET.COM PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      6 EIGHT COMPANIES ANNOUNCE TO DISBURSE DIVIDENDS SO FAR WWW.ZGM.MN PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      7 MONGOLIA'S PROSTITUTION ZONES, WHERE WOMEN TRADE SEX FOR FUEL IN SUB-ZERO TEMPERATURES WWW.TELEGRAPH.CO.UK PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      8 MONGOLIA TO SUSPEND KFC OUTLETS FOR INQUIRY AFTER FOOD POISONING REPORTS WWW.CNBC.COM PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      9 MIAT TO FLY BETWEEN ULAANBAATAR AND GUANGZHOU WWW.NEWS.MN PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      10 NEW BOOK ABOUT MONGOL EMPIRE’S IMPACT ON ISLAM WWW.NEWS.MN PUBLISHED:2019/02/20      УУХҮЯ: II САРЫН БАЙДЛААР НИЙТ НУТАГ ДЭВСГЭРИЙН 5.6 ХУВЬД АШИГТ МАЛТМАЛЫН ЛИЦЕНЗ ОЛГОСОН WWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     300 ОРТОЙ ТӨРӨХ ЭМНЭЛГИЙН БАРИЛГЫН АЖИЛ 80%-Д ХҮРЧ ГУРАВДУГААР САРЫН 1-НЭЭС ДУЛААНД ХОЛБОГДОХООР БОЛЖЭЭ WWW.IKON.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     II/19-НИЙ ДОТОР 24 ХК НОГДОЛ АШИГ ОЛГОХТОЙ ХОЛБООТОЙ ШИЙДВЭРЭЭ ГАРГАЖ , СЗХ-НД ХҮРГҮҮЛСЭН БАЙНА WWWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     ӨНГӨРСӨН САРД 23.9 МЯНГАН ЖУУЛЧИН ХҮЛЭЭН АВЧЭЭ WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     ЭРЧИМ ХҮЧНИЙ ИМПОРТ БУУРЧЭЭ WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     ТАТВАР ТӨЛДӨГ 191 МЯНГАН ААН-Н 95.9 ХУВЬ НЬ БИЧИЛ БИЗНЕС ЭРХЭЛДЭГ WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     НИЙТ НУТГИЙН 70 ОРЧИМ ХУВЬ НЬ ЦАСТАЙ БАЙНА WWW.MONTSAME.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     ХАНБОГД-ОЮУТОЛГОЙГ ХОЛБОСОН ЗАМЫН НЭЭЛТ БОЛЛОО WWW.GOGO.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/20     ЗГҮЦ-ЫН АНХДАГЧ ЗАХ ЗЭЭЛИЙН АРИЛЖАА МХБ-ИЙН ҮЙЛ АЖИЛЛАГААНЫ ОРЛОГО БУУРЧЭЭ WWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/19     “TEMASEK HOLDINGS” КОМПАНИ “TRQ” ДЭХ ЭЗЭМШЛИЙН ХУВИА 28 ХУВИАР БУУРУУЛАВ WWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/02/19    

Events

Name organizer Where
“Doing business with Mongolia”, “UK Investors show” бизнес хөтөлбөр March 27-April 02. 2019 ЛОНДОН ХОТ, ИХ БРИТАНИ Mongolian Business Database London UK
SYMPOSIUM ON GLOBAL MARKETS Nationalism and Protectionism: The United States in the International Arena June 17-18, 2019 The Center for American and International Law Plano, Texas, USA The Center for American and International Law (CAILAW) Plano Texas June 17-18 2019
"Open to Export" ICC WTO International business award ICC WTO London

NEWS

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Construction of Tavantolgoi-Gashuunsukhait road to be intensified www.montsame.mn

Ulaanbaatar/MONTSAME/ During the Cabinet meeting on February 20, National Development Agency was assigned to speed up a process to implement the ‘Tavantolgoi-Gashuunsukhait’ 259 km high capacity road project under ‘design-build-operate-transfer’ concession.

Authorities of corresponding companies were obliged to ensure safety of the traffic movement and repair damaged parts of the existing road in this route.

The new road will have four lanes and be special purpose road that has a load bearing capacity of 115 tons; 24 tons on each axle. Construction of the road is believed to increase freight transportation by two-fold, augment coal export, bring economic benefits, develop rural areas and increase jobs.

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Over 30 measures planned for reduction of environmental pollution www.montsame.mn

Ulaanbaatar/MONTSAME/ At the regular meeting of Cabinet on February 20, Minister of Environment and Tourism N.Tserenbat reported about implementation process of the government resolution No:62 in 2018, Ban on raw coal burning.

The National Committee on Environmental Pollution Reduction intends to conduct 32 activities this year. For instance, nighttime electricity tariff discount will be given to households who use electric heaters, entire ger area households will be provided with improved fuel, re-planning of ger area will be intensified, accessibility of centralized and partial engineering facilities will be improved, stage by stage restrictions will be made to aged or diesel-consuming vehicles to run in traffic movement, and households of ger area will be able to get improved fuel by loan through the banks.

Moreover, control posts will be set up in four points of the city for prevention of raw coal entry.

After hearing the report, the Cabinet assigned the Minister to report the progress of the works at the Cabinet meeting dated on May 15.

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Mongolia says it earns over 169 mln USD from coal exports to China in Jan www.hellenicshippingnews.com

Mongolia earned 169.2 million U.S. dollars from coal exports to China in January, the Mongolian Customs General Administration (MCGA) said Tuesday.

The Asian country exported a total of 2.1 million tons of coal in January, virtually all to China, the MCGA said in a statement, adding that the figure is an increase of around 192,000 tons from the same period last year.

Coal is the landlocked country’s main export commodity. The country exported a total of 36.5 million tons of coal last year, reaching an all-time high.

The country has set a goal to increase coal exports to 40 million tons in the coming years.
Source: Xinhua

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Russia’s Gazprom to start China gas pipeline by December 1 www.rt.com

Russia’s gas giant Gazprom will begin natural gas deliveries to China via the Power of Siberia pipeline ahead of schedule, as early as December 1, 2019, Alexey Miller, Chairman of Gazprom’s Management Committee, has said.
The Power of Siberia natural gas pipeline was initially expected to start sending gas to China on December 20, 2019, and its completion is among Gazprom’s top priorities.

After talks in Beijing with officials of CNPC—with which Gazprom has a 30-year contract for the supply of an annual 1.3 trillion cu ft of natural gas via the Power of Siberia pipeline—Miller said:

“Construction of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline is going ahead of schedule, and Gazprom will start delivering gas to China well in advance, as early as December 1, 2019.”

The Power of Siberia gas pipeline will transport natural gas from the Irkutsk and Yakutia production centers to consumers in Russia’s Far East and to China.

Gazprom is dominating gas supplies to many European markets while it also vies to meet the surging Chinese natural gas demand as the country is in the middle of a massive switch from coal-fired to gas-fired heating in millions of homes.

In 2018, China’s natural gas imports—including pipeline and liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports—soared by nearly 32 percent from 2017 to a record 90.39 million tons, solidifying China’s position as the world’s biggest importer of the fuel.

China became the world’s top natural gas importer—including LNG and pipeline—in October last year, overtaking Japan which imports all its gas as LNG.

According to Platts Analytics, China—currently the world’s second-largest LNG importer behind Japan—is set to overtake Japan as the top global LNG importer by 2022 as China will continue to be the largest growth factor behind global LNG demand growth.

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Mongolia's foreign trade up 41.6 pct in Jan. www.xinhuanet.com

ULAN BATOR, Feb. 19 (Xinhua) -- Mongolia's goods trade rose 41.6 percent year on year in January to 1.1 billion U.S. dollars, official data showed Tuesday.

Exports grew 43.3 percent year on year to 607.3 million dollars in January, while imports rose 39.6 percent to 504 million dollars, the Mongolian Customs General Administration (MCGA) said in a statement, noting that the country demonstrated a surplus in its foreign trade balance as exports exceeded imports by 103.3 million dollars.

The market value of 12 products, including mineral products and textile goods, has increased, contributing to the significant increase in revenue from exports, the MCGA said, adding that the mining industry accounted for 69 percent of total exports.

Mongolia traded with 105 economies across the world last month. Among the 43 countries to which Mongolia exported its goods and services in the period, China was the recipient of over 80 percent of the total, according to the MCGA.

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Eight companies announce to disburse dividends so far www.zgm.mn

Within the legal obligations, the Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE)-listed firms are required to have announced the information regarding the dividends by today. As of today, eight companies have announced to distribute dividends.

For instance, Gobi JSC has informed to allocate MNT 5.3 billion, or MNT 6.8 per share from the net profits of 2018. The dividend is scheduled to be distributed starting from April 25, either via cash at the headquarter or via bank transfers. Last year, Gobi JSC distributed MNT 1.7 billion in dividends.

Mongol Basalt JSC will be oneyear- old since its IPO in May. The company, which offered 30 percent of its stake, announced to disburse MNT 56.4 million or MNT 1 per share from the net profits of 2018. Disclosure of dividend distribution within the first year after going public had a positive effect on the company’s stock as the price increased from MNT 250 per share to MNT 260 within a week.

Next on the list is Bayan Teeg JSC. The company, which is operating a coal business, is planning to allocate MNT 3,958.7 per share, which is the highest amount of dividend distribution as of today. The dividends will be administered by June 1.

Another public company in the same business field, Tavan Tolgoi JSC has announced its 2018 financial report. Within the financial year, the coal exporter earned a total of MNT 226.4 billion in sales revenue and MNT 52.6 billion in net profits, which is three times lower than the 2017 net profits. The board of Tavan Tolgoi disclosed to disburse MNT 998.7 per share. The company allocated MNT 2,410 per share last year.

A farming industry firm Khuvsgul Altan Duulga JSC also announced to distribute MNT 1.88 billion, or MNT 120 per share in dividends this year. The company offered a seasoned issue last year and raised MNT 3.74 billion, doubling the number of shareholders, and its market capitalization reached MNT 16.1 billion.

Starting from May 1, a publicly- owned postal service provider Mongolian Post JSC will disburse MNT 468 million, or MNT 4.7 per share, while Talkh Chikher JSC announced to allocate MNT 204.7 million or MNT 200 per share from July 1. Next up is a national meat and meat products manufacturer Makh Impex JSC. The company is planning to administer MNT 456 million or MNT 120 per share in October 2019.

As of today, 305 public firms are listed at the Financial Regulatory Commission. As of the end of 2018, the market capitalization of the MSE stood at MNT 2.5 trillion, a 2.9 growth year over year.

Additionally, the second IPO of 2019 was announced recently. Ard Credit LLC, which operates a non-banking financial institution (NBFI) and has signed a deal with Mongolian Post JSC on delivery service, is planning to raise MNT 4.9- 5.4 billion at MNT 70-85 per share by offering 25 percent of its stake to built up a loan source. Half of the shares are being offered to strategic investors and the other half is for the public. The company announced a roadshow for its IPO at 6.30PM at Corporate Convention Center today.

As of today, a total of 539 NBFIs are operating in Mongolia. Net equity of the NBFIs totaled MNT 1.3 trillion last year, a 32.5 percent growth year over year.

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Mongolia's prostitution zones, where women trade sex for fuel in sub-zero temperatures www.telegraph.co.uk

It’s nearing midnight in an unadorned bar on a backstreet off Sükhbaatar Square, and 31 year-old Minjuur rubs her hands to shake off the cold.

Speaking in a whisper, she explains her average evening. Men pick her up from the park by the Central Tower office building, then they go to a nearby hotel for an hour of sex.

Minjuur has a small scar on her right upper cheek that is visible despite her makeup, and she counts on her fingers the number of friends who have died in her line of work. It is minus 20 degrees Celsius tonight, and Minjuur has a chest-rattling cough. Vodka helps her ward off the chill. She says the winter is hard.

Mongolia’s capital presents grim working conditions for the city’s prostitutes. Ulaanbaatar is often overlooked as a centre of prostitution, but – despite increased activity in border areas – it remains the hub for the country’s sex work and sexual trafficking. But as the city’s prostitutes experience violence and social stigma, some are navigating riskier working environments beyond the city.

“Most of these women working in this field are very poor and need cash,” said outreach officer Erdenesuren. “They are driven by necessity.” Erdenesuren – who like many Mongolians only uses one name – works for the NGO Perfect Ladies (In Mongolian: Tugs Busguichuud), which promotes prevention of sexually transmitted infections among prostitutes and helps them leave sex work.

Prostitution and human trafficking are illegal within Mongolia but the sex trade is growing. While some women solicit openly on the streets of the capital, others work discreetly out of karaoke bars, saunas and massage parlours. Mongolia is a source, transit and destination country for sex labour.

According to a 2014 report from the United Nations Institute for Training and Research, between 3,000 and 5,000 women and children are trafficked each year from rural communities into cities and beyond the nation’s borders.

Unicef estimates that roughly 19,000 sex workers are active in Mongolia, however, some field workers cite much higher numbers. The state’s population sits at around 3 million. While male prostitutes do exist, they are a small minority.

The rapid growth of the country’s mining sector over the last decade has created a workforce of isolated men, thereby spurring on the industry. Skirting the border with China, the southern Gobi Desert – where mineral mining projects run by Rio Tinto and other global operations are located – has become a new focal point for prostitution.

“In Ulaanbaatar there is violence (against prostitutes) – from families and from working people – but inside the mining area everyone comes for the same goal: making money, and they don’t judge one another,” said Sorbonne University Ethnology Professor Gaëlle Lacaze.

Amidst lines of trucks parked against a barren expanse of sand, a converted bus-turned-café is the only option for some tea and conversation. Enkhtaivan Baatar is biding time at Tavan Tolgoi – a coal deposit in Ömnögovi province within the Gobi Desert.

The 39-year-old truck driver in a black hoodie is waiting for his coal shipment so he can drive his cargo across the border. He has been doing this job for three years, and has seen many prostitutes. Cars filled with women pull up off the highway and, when the price is settled, join the drivers in the cab of their truck.

Baatar also describes a sign close to the border that advertises women for sale and lists a number to call if interested. “Wherever there is money and men they come,” he said.

Mongolia’s mining boom started in the early 2000s and mining now accounts for around 20 per cent of Mongolia’s gross domestic product. The growth in mining has created a spike in internal migration to mining areas – most notably Ömnögovi.

The country has a 0.03 per cent general prevalence rate of HIV among adults and, for Mongolians infected, treatment is free. As of 2017 data, however, only 32 per cent of people living with HIV knew their status.

“Mining industries are notorious hotspots for HIV infection,” said UNAIDS Regional Director for Asia and the Pacific Eamonn Murphy. “There is money around, and people are away from their homes and cultural, social and other inhibitors, and so they take risks that they wouldn’t normally.”

The coal route from the Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit to the Chinese border is synonymous with sex work fuelled by the mining industry. Despite being from the capital, 32 year-old Uka is intimately familiar with this stretch of transit. Uka has been earning a living as a sex worker in Mongolia for almost a decade.

The petite 32-year-old entered the industry to earn money after her daughter was born. She began in Ulaanbaatar, but now works along the border. Her clients – truck drivers – sometimes don’t have cash, so they pay her in fuel. Uka would rather work for diesel then return to the conditions facing prostitutes in Ulaanbaatar.

According to Uka, prostitutes in the capital face frequent violence from pimps and customers, but Ömnögovi is better. In contrast to the stigma felt in the city, she describes the border area as accepting and open. Uka explains that four or five women travel to the border area with a driver and rent a ger (a traditional round felted tent) to stay.

They need to travel in groups – it is dangerous to be a woman alone with so many truck drivers. Uka reaches up and adjusts an earring as she lists her rate: 50,000 MNT per act, with an hourly rate of 80,000 MNT and a daily rate of 200,000 MNT (roughly £14, £23 and £58). If the drivers don’t have cash, they pay in fuel: 40 or 50 litres of diesel for one act, 100 litres for one hour. The women then resell the fuel when they can for money.

Yet when Uka is soliciting in south Gobi, she is working without resources. “It’s risky there,” said Erdenesuren, of working near the Chinese border. “The ones who like to take risks go there.”

In Ulaanbaatar, there are STI awareness programmes and condom distribution, social workers like Erdenesuren try to check up on the women they know, but in the Gobi there is no such infrastructure. Uka explains how the women she works with buy contraceptives off one another when they run out, as there is no store to purchase more. Often customers don’t want to use them anyway.

Ulaanbaatar may offer prostitutes more contact with NGOs providing outreach, but it is a harsh environment for women working in the trade. Previously, Uka sold sex in a sauna in the capital where she alleges police and customers beat her. She claims ultra-nationalists target sex workers on the street and shave their heads to disgrace them. The Ulaanbaatar police did not respond to requests for comment on this story.

In Mongolia, sex work is an occupation shrouded in shame and silence. Erdenesuren cites the cycle of humiliation and fear that keeps women from reaching out to the police and family: “It is better to have your bones broken, then your name dishonoured.”

Uka explains that people don’t openly talk about prostitution and why women end up in sex work. She left school after eighth grade and has few options to earn an income. “For some women, it is easier to open their legs than go to the factory,” said Lacaze, “because they have no diplomas. She is alone with children, she has to eat.”

Uka admits that her daughter has no idea how her mum earns an income. Her family believes she is a cook. In Ulaanbaatar, Minjuur tells her family that her nights are spent serving in a bar. Both women support multiple dependents with their earnings. “Nobody knows what they are doing, but everybody knows,” said Lacaze. “Everybody is complicit.”

The Nordic style house in the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar stands out against its surroundings, and its inhabitants are also trying to adapt. This is a safe house run by the Swedish anti-trafficking NGO Talita. It is privately funded with only four beds available.

Gaamaa occupies one of those beds. The tiny 22-year-old, in sweatpants and a t-shirt, looks like a university student relaxing between classes. She speaks softly. “If girls refuse to have sex, they abuse them and if they can’t change a girl, they sell her,” she said. “They call the trafficker and sell.”

Gaamaa has been bought and sold many times. In 2016, fleeing an abusive home, Gaamaa ended up at a sauna near the central railway station. There, in rooms with barred windows, she worked with four other women for a rate of 40,000 MNT for one hour and 60,000 MNT for two hours (roughly £11 and £17). Their madam supplied food and clothes, but never the money earned. The brothel sold her to another sauna when they found she was trying to escape, but not before she alleges being beaten as punishment and then raped by her attackers.

“Society think they [prostitutes] are garbage,” said Talita Mongolia founder and director Tserenchunt Byamba-Ochir. “There is no funding to protect victims, not one coin to protect victims of trafficking from the Mongolia government – they say we don’t have money for that.”

In 2017, the federal government cut funding to seven regional offices of Mongolia’s sole NGO designed to help sex workers – Perfect Ladies. Only three branches remain. Five women’s shelters operate, but four offer short term stays only. Talita’s Ulaanbaatar branch (the fifth shelter) is the sole long-term rehabilitation center for former prostitutes, and it is at capacity.

Eventually, Gaamaa was trafficked into China where she worked in multiple cities before a client helped her escape to the Mongolian embassy in Beijing. She arrived at Talita in late 2017.

Gaamaa used to shake as she talked about her experiences and she had nightmares. Now she wraps her arms around a stuffed bear and explains with a smile that she is looking into culinary college. But Gaamaa is also anxious about living in the capital, afraid that someone from her old life will recognise her.

Byamba-Ochir also has concerns. With many of the cases where Talita assists, the traffickers are not charged. Women feel intimidated and change their stories in court, or get pulled back into the trade. Gaamaa believes if she hadn’t been trafficked to China, she would still be a prostitute.

“Here in Mongolia they are not kind,” said Gaamaa. It’s really hard to escape here – it’s everywhere in Ulaanbaatar. It is very hard to escape Mongolia.”

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Mongolia to suspend KFC outlets for inquiry after food poisoning reports www.cnbc.com

A Mongolian regulator said it will suspend operations at KFC restaurants temporarily to conduct inquiries, as 42 people were hospitalized and hundreds showed food poisoning symptoms after eating at one of the outlets of the fast-food chain.

The incident occurred at the Zaisan outlet in Ulaanbaatar last week due to its contaminated water supply, the city's Metropolitan Professional Inspection Agency said, adding that 247 people had reported symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting.

The Zaisan restaurant has already been shut for checks, an official at the agency told Reuters on Tuesday.

"We will carry out inspections for the other KFC branches from Feb. 18-21 and suspend their operations when we do the inspections," the official added. The regulator had previously said it had suspended all the local KFC outlets.

KFC, which is part of Yum Brands Inc, has at least 11 restaurants in the country, according to its website.

Ganbat Danzanbaatar, general manager of KFC Mongolia, said apart from the Zaisan outlet, all KFC restaurants were open.

KFC opened its first restaurant in Mongolia in 2013 and all its restaurants are in the capital. They are operated by its franchise partner, Mongolian conglomerate Tavan Bogd Group.

"We deeply regret the negative impact that many people have suffered, especially to our guests of the Zaisan restaurant, and we are working to support our team members and customers during this difficult time," a KFC Global spokeswoman told Reuters.

"KFC Mongolia is cooperating fully with the government's investigation and recommendations around addressing the source of the incident. This includes a thorough investigation of all KFC Mongolia restaurants, and specifically into determining the exact cause of the reported incident," she said in an email.

Tavan Bogd apologized in a separate statement, saying the incident had happened due to weak internal quality checks and that daily standards and rules were poorly implemented.

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MIAT to fly between Ulaanbaatar and Guangzhou www.news.mn

MIAT Mongolian Airlines has opened reservations for its planned route between Ulaanbaatar and Guangzhou, the capital city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. The flight is scheduled to commence on 31 March, 2019. MIAT’s new Boeing 737-800 is scheduled to serve this route twice a week.

Recently, MIAT has acquired two Boeing 737 Max aircraft from the global leasing company Avolon. The first of the planes arrived on 21 January, 2019.

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New book about Mongol Empire’s impact on Islam www.news.mn

Recently republished in paperback, Timothy May’s “The Mongol Empire” is part of a major series of books on the history of the Islamic world from the University of Edinburgh.

May provides a much-needed global perspective on Mongol rule, and its impact on Islam itself: Mongol converts represented a staggering increase in the number of Muslims in the world at the time, and their conquest only fueled the spread of the religion. Three further Islamic empires, meanwhile, would rise from the Mongol’s eventual disintegration.

But unlike the Ottoman, Fatimid and Seljuk empires, the Mongols were not majority Muslim; indeed, one of the great strengths of the four great “Khanates” was the tolerance of religious freedom they extended to their subjects.

The greatest Khan, Temujin, was crowned Genghis Khan, Ruler of the Universe, in 1206. In his late thirties, he was a brilliant warrior and commanded a vast army famed and feared for its superb horsemanship and remarkable archery. Cunning and opportunistic, he allegedly proclaimed: “I am the punishment of God. If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you.”

When he died in 1227, Genghis Khan ruled an empire the size of a continent, from China to Europe. History shows that it is easier to build an empire than preserve it, and the fate of his successors proved even the Mongol Khans were no exception.

The Mongols left virtually no written record of their empire, but their legacy lasts to this day. During their rule, they not only facilitated trade, offering merchants protection, status, and tax-exemption, but actively encouraged the use of the East-West trade routes later known as the fabled Silk Road, linking China, India, Europe and the Middle East.

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