1 REGISTERED UNEMPLOYED DECREASED BY 10 PERCENT WWW.MONTSAME.MN PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      2 CONSTRUCTION BEGINS ON CHINA-RUSSIA BORDER CABLEWAY WWW.CHINADAILY.COM.CN PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      3 ELECTRIC CAR MODELS TO TRIPLE IN EUROPE BY 2021 WWW.BBC.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      4 BOEING TAKES $5BN HIT OVER GROUNDING OF 737 MAX WWW.BBCC.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      5 CHINA TO BOOST IMPORTS OF RUSSIAN SOYBEANS, CUTTING OUT US CROP EXPORTS WWW.RT.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      6 LUXEMBOURG'S INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT FOR MONGOLIA CONTRIBUTES TO 50% REDUCTION IN INFANT MORTALITY WWW.CHRONICLE.LU PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      7 FOREIGN WORKERS IN MONGOLIA INCREASED BY 4.8 THOUSAND WWW.MONTSAME.MN PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      8 MONGOLIA'S INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT RISES 12.6 PERCENT IN H1 WWW.XINHUANET.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/19      9 KREMLIN OPENS DOOR TO CHANGING CONSTITUTION AS SUCCESSION LOOMS WWW.BLOOMBERG.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/18      10 MONGOLIA AND SPAIN TO DEVELOP COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION WWW.QAZAQTIMES.COM PUBLISHED:2019/07/18      МОНГОЛЫН ТЭЭВЭРЧИД ӨӨРИЙН УНААГААР ДАЛАЙН БООМТ ХҮРЭХ БОЛОМЖ БҮРДЛЭЭ WWW.IKON.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ЭДИЙН ЗАСГИЙН ХАГАС ЖИЛИЙН ЗАРИМ ҮЗҮҮЛЭЛТҮҮД WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ХҮН АМЫН 67 ХУВЬ НЬ САРД 86-306 МЯНГАН ТӨГРӨГИЙН ХЭРЭГЛЭЭТЭЙ БҮЛЭГТ АМЬДАРЧ БАЙНА WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ӨНГӨРСӨН САРД ЭКСПОРТЫН ХЭМЖЭЭ БУУРЧ, ИМПОРТ ӨСЖЭЭ WWW.IKON.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ХЭРЭГЛЭЭНИЙ БАРАА, ҮЙЛЧИЛГЭЭНИЙ ҮНИЙН ӨСӨЛТ 8.1% БУЮУ ТАВАН ЖИЛИЙН ДЭЭД ТҮВШИНД ХҮРЧЭЭ WWW.IKON.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ЖДҮХС-ГИЙН 13.5 ТЭРБУМ ТӨГРӨГИЙН САНХҮҮЖИЛТЭД 47 ТӨСӨЛ ӨРСӨЛДӨЖ БАЙНА WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ТӨГРӨГИЙН ЭСРЭГ АМ.ДОЛЛАР, РУБЛИЙН ХАНШ СУЛАРЧ, ЮАНИЙНХ ЧАНГАРАВ WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     ЧАНАРГҮЙ ЗЭЭЛ 60 ТЭРБУМААР БУУРЧЭЭ WWW.EAGLE.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/19     "УБ-БҮК" БОЛОН "ИНВЕСКОР”-ЫН ХУВЬЦААНЫ ХАНШ ӨНДӨР ӨСӨЛТТЭЙ БАЙВ WWW.MONTSAME.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/18     НООС ҮНЭГҮЙДСЭЭР БАЙНА WWW.NEWS.MN  НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2019/07/18    

Events

Name organizer Where
56TH ANNUAL ACADEMY OF AMERICAN AND INTERNATIONAL LAW The Academy of American and International Law Plano Texas USA
SYMPOSIUM ON GLOBAL MARKETS Nationalism and Protectionism: The United States in the International Arena June 17-18, 2019 The Center for American and International Law Plano, Texas, USA The Center for American and International Law (CAILAW) Plano Texas June 17-18 2019

NEWS

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21 aimags and 285 soums being connected to internet www.montsame.mn

Ulaanbaatar /MONTSAME/ Today on 19 June, a launch event of ‘E-soum’ project, which is being implemented by the Government, was held at Shangri La Hotel. The Government has formulated policies and is implementing several programs and projects targeted at the development of information and communications sector. Electronization of soums is being implemented in three stages within the programs and projects.

On the first stage, wireless and landline internet service became accessible in 118 remote soums and on the second stage, wireless internet network was established in 136 soums, providing soum residents with inexpensive internet service. During the third stage, the project launched today is connecting some 80 soums and settlements with wireless internet. Therefore, now 21 aimags and 285 soums are having a wireless broadband internet connection.

PM J.Erdenbat delivered speech at the opening ceremony. “- Every Mongolian citizen has a right to receive services and information of state organizations transparently, promptly and independently on location and time, gaining access to the most reliable and universal communication service. We are working with an aim to make state service equally accessible and inclusive, reaching for citizens of remote soum, settlements and the countryside, changing the current situation that citizens move to bigger settlements to receive state services. We are launching a project to newly connect 73 soums with wireless and landline internet in 2017 within ‘E-soum” project. The project will give benefits to over 800 thousand people in remote soums and settlements and it is essential to improve their involvement of state policy development, access of state services as well as to make state organizations operate transparently and without bureaucracy ” PM said.

Executive Director of “Mongolia Telecom” company M.Altan-Ochir said “ – Internet connection becomes available in all over the soum center territory. State organizations of soums including Citizens representative meeting, governor’s office, hospital, police, kindergarten and schools are connected to internet. Moreover people can use any device to be connected to internet. A total of MNT2.5 billion was spent for it. Our company also made some funding for it. We are in charge of the internet operation and services further”.
“Mongolia Telecom” company is now working on introducing ‘E-soum’ application for administrative organization of soums to establish interior network between organizations, distribute information promptly and to make state service accessible to citizens through internet.

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Mongolia hailed for efficiency steps www.airlines.iata.org

IATA has welcomed the steps the Mongolian Civil Aviation Authority is taking to help airlines improve efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Mongolia has taken significant action in improving air traffic management infrastructure, through continued implementation of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) routes.

Air Navigation Service Providers (ANSPs) use PBN technologies to allow aircraft to travel as quickly and safely as possible, optimizing efficiency and reducing aviation’s carbon footprint.

IATA’s initial estimates show that Mongolia’s actions in implementing PBN routes have resulted in annual reductions of 240,000 nautical miles, 24,000 flight minutes, and 2,250 tons of fuel burn, compared to the previous infrastructure.

In a statement, IATA said it was "eager to continue its valuable collaboration with Mongolia, striving to continue to improve the efficiencies of the flights operating in the region—via Mongolia—most of which are long haul."

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New project to boost renewable energy in Mongolia www.climateactionprogramme.org

The new project focuses on improving the reliability and sustainability of electricity services in Mongolia, in the face of the country’s rising energy demand.

The Second Energy Sector Project was approved by the World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors last week, and will provide $54.4 million to address bottlenecks in Mongolia’s electricity supply by upgrading ageing assets and expanding distribution capacity.

Obsolete and inefficient distribution networks have led to significant distribution losses, which are as much as 25 per cent in many networks.

The World Bank detailed that regional distribution systems have reached their capacity limit and are in critical need of renovation and expansion.

The project will finance efforts to upgrade and expand the capacity of power distribution infrastructure in the Baganuur-Southeast and the Erdenet-Bulgan distribution network – which provide electricity to nine of Mongolia’s 21 provinces.

The project will also support the development of renewable energy through the installation of the nation’s first large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) 10 megawatt (MW) power plant outside the Central Energy System.

The solar energy plant will generate affordable and clean energy to the country’s western region, which currently imports 70 per cent of its power supply.

The project will be funded by a $42 million loan on concessional terms from the World Bank’s International Development Association and a $12.4 million grant from the Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Program under the Strategic Climate Fund.

James Anderson, World Bank Country Manager for Mongolia, said: “More reliable access to electricity will improve the lives of families and help businesses thrive. The World Bank is committed to continuing our partnership with Mongolia to strengthen the power sector and explore options for renewable energy to help the country pursue sustainable development.”

Peter Johansen, senior energy specialist of the World Bank, said: “We are encouraged by the government’s target to increase the share of renewables to 30 per cent by 2030. With its abundant solar and wind power resources, the country is now considering to more effectively and efficiently incentivize renewable energy investment to fully use its potential.”

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Mark Garnier emphasises strong UK-Mongolia trade relationship www.gov.uk

The UK’s international trade minister Mark Garnier was the first UK Department for International Trade Minister to visit Mongolia. His visit emphasised the strong bilateral trading relationship. Mongolia has huge potential for economic growth and the UK stands ready to help companies in Mongolia fulfil their ambition ensuring our partnership can go from strength to strength.

Throughout the visit, the minister highlighted the UK is a significant economic and export partner for Mongolia. The UK is one of the largest investors in Mongolia in sectors ranging from mining and building infrastructure to financial services. Exports from the UK to Mongolia include a diverse variety of products.

During his visit, the minister met the Foreign Minister, H.E. Munkh-Orgil Tsend, Vice Minister of Road and Transport Development, H.E. Tsogtgerel Batchuluun. Discussions were held on many matters, including:

ways to further strengthen the bilateral trading relationship
exploring areas to maximise future opportunities for UK and Mongolian businesses
He also opened the securities trading session at the Mongolian Stock Exchange.

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Russia's Rosneft discovers vast new oil deposit on Arctic shelf www.rt.com

Russian oil major Rosneft has announced the discovery of a new oil deposit while drilling at Khatanga Bay in the Laptev Sea in the eastern Arctic. The Ministry of Natural Resources says this could be the largest oil deposit on the country’s Arctic shelf.

“During the drilling of the Tsentralno-Olginskaya-1 well from the shore of the Khara-Tumus Peninsula on the shelf of the Khatanga Bay of the Laptev Sea, three core samples were taken from depths of 2305 to 2363 m, which showed high oil saturation dominated with light oily fractions,” the company said in a statement.

The potential of the newly-discovered deposit has yet to be verified, the company said.

“On the basis of primary studies, it can be concluded a new oil field has been discovered, the volume of the resource potential of which is increasing as the drilling continues. Core sampling continues at the moment,” a statement from Rosneft said.

Russian Minister of Natural Resources Sergey Donskoy congratulated the company on the discovery and said this could be the largest oil deposit in the Russian Arctic.

"Now we expect more discoveries from our colleagues. They promise to cheer up the sector soon," Donskoy posted on Facebook.

Russia’s largest private oil company – Lukoil – is also operating in Khatanga. Lukoil has been developing the Eastern Taimyr sector. The area’s coastal resources are estimated at 4.5 million tons of oil, 9.3 billion cubic meters of gas and 0.5 million tons of condensate.

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Prime Minister invites investors as positive economic outlook seen for Mongolian economy www.montsame.mn

Ulaanbaatar /MONTSAME/ The second annual summit of the Business Council of Mongolia is being held on June 19-20. Under the theme “Regional Connectivity in Asia”, the main topics of infrastructure, power, mining, environmental awareness and other potential projects are being discussed.

PM J.Erdenebat opened the summit with a speech and said “Foreign trade turnover of Mongolia steadily increased to USD 8.3 billion in 2016, while reached USD 4 billion in the first quarter of this year. Around 80 percent of the total exports consists of mining products. The Government is aiming to create multi-pillared economy by diversifying export products and manufacturing final products from the agricultural raw materials”.

After discussing the Economic Corridor program agreement, which was signed between Mongolia, China and Russia, PM J.Erdenebat noted “We perceive that an opportunity for increasing transit shipments and trades exists in Mongolia. Therefore, Mongolia is interested in cooperating with Russia, China and other countries in the region to increase rail freight transports, create power grid and develop pipeline transport. Also, the positive outlook of the Mongolian mid-term macro economy can be observed from the reports of international banks, financial institutions and experts. Therefore, we encourage foreign investors to invest in Mongolia”.

Within the framework of the summit, several world-leading companies, such as The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ and SoftBank Group, are attending to present cooperation opportunities. Accordingly, Shigeki Miwa, General Manager of SoftBank's CEO Office, delivered a presentation on Asian Super Grid and highlighted the possibilities of joining the project.
B.Tugsbilig

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EU-standard meat factory to be built in Uvs aimag www.montsame.mn

Ulaanbaatar /MONTSAME/ During his visit to Uvs aimag, Minister of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry P.Sergelen attended the groundbreaking ceremony of “Khumen Negdel” LLC’s factory, which will manufacture meat and meat products under European Union standards with Austrian “BERTSCH LASKA” LLC’s equipment, on June 11.

The groundbreaking ceremony was attended by MP N.Tserenbat, local officials led by Governor of Uvs aimag D.Batsaikhan and representatives of local residents and herders.

The construction of the factory is expected to continue for 11 months in total. Once the operation starts, around 40-50 big and 120-150 small livestock animals will be processed through a single shift, producing thousand tons of livestock meat and 6 hundred tons of raw and pre-cooked meat products annually.

The current issue for the company is to establish a pre-contract with herders to register cattle with livestock branding, bar code systems and conduct preventive maintenance in order to provide healthy food to the consumers.

Secondly, the company is aiming to manufacture and export frozen meats, variety of sausages, meat products, meat preserves and offal products with HACCP and ISO standards. Furthermore, the factory is expected to create 70-80 jobs once the operation begins.
Source: Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry
B.Tugsbilig

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32 projects to be implemented in scope of China-Mongolia-Russia economic corridor www.gogo.mn

- The 2nd annual BCM Summit which is hosted by Business Council of Mongolia is being held under the theme “Regional Connectivity in Asia” to discuss opportunities in Mongolia to accelerate trade and economic development in Asia, today at Ikh Tenger Complex. -
The first panel on Regional Economic Integration: From Economic Necessity to Political Reality was attended by
V.Enkhbold, Director of Foreign trade and Economic Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
Alex Gong, Executive director & Senior Vice President, Foun Group,
Haiming Xing, Ambassador of People`s Republic of China to Mongolia,
Og Song, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Mongolia,
Anastasiya Nabatchikova, Chief Administrative Officer, Bridgens,
Iskander Azzizov, Ambassador of the Rusian Federation
Ts.Tumentsogt. CEO, Erdenes Mongol.
The panel discussion was moderated by B.Byambasaikan, Board Member of Mongolian Business Council.

Iskander Azzizov, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to Mongolia said that Russia and Mongolia reached an agreement to upgrade the Ulaanbaatar Railway Joint Venture Company.
Haiming Xing, Ambassador of People`s Republic of China to Mongolia emphasized "There are six economic corridors between Mongolia and China. China is ready to invest in order to develop those corridors.
Og Song, Ambassador of the Republic of Korea to Mongolia stated that "Korea and Mongolia are discussing to establish Economic Partnership Agreement and I hope that it will enable Korean investors to turn their attentions to Mongolia. However, we must remember that stable policy is very significant.
Moreover, a technological fund of Korea and Japan agreed to invest in Mongolia. A meeting of the fund was held in Tokyo and the next meeting is planned to be held in Ulaanbaatar on 18-19th of July, involving delegations of major technological companies of the two countries; namely Hyundai, Samsung and Mitsubishi etc". 
 Heads of Russia, Mongolia and Chine agreed to implement 32 projects in scope of the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic corridor. Due to high number of projects, there is a necessity to choose the essential six projects that are needed to be implemented in near future. V.Enkhbold, Director of Foreign trade and Economic Cooperation Ministry of Foreign Affairs noted that Mongolia chosen the priority six projects and submitted the proposal. 
The next meeting of Presidents of Russia, China and Mongolia is scheduled to take place in Ulaanbaatar city and the new President of Mongolia will attend. Panelists noted that the President T.Elbegdorj played a key role in establishing the China-Mongolia-Russia Economic corridor.

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Western shore region of Khuvsgul Lake connected to electricity network www.montsame.mn

Khuvsgul /MONTSAME/ A region on the western shore of the Khuvsgul Lake, one of the top tourist attractions of Mongolia has been connected to the central electricity network. Construction work of 16 KW electricity line and sub-station were completed within 40 days.

Electricity connection from Khatgal village to Toilogt allows 73 tourist camps and 110 ger camps surrounding the lake and local households access to electricity supply and following benefits including comfortable toilet and hot shower, internet access and new jobs. New electricity lines continue up to 40 km, reaching the most remote tourist camp.

Construction work costs MNT1.6 billion and three companies, namely, Infrastructure, Selena and Plus and Minus have executed the work.

B.Ooluun

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Mongolian Warriors and Communist Soldiers: A Frontier Town in China www.nytimes.com

ENQUAN, China — Wenquan means “hot springs,” and the town, nestled in a fertile swath of Central Asia, certainly has its share. Alpine forests cloak the surrounding mountains. To the south is a wide lake where azure waters lap at stony shores. Horses and sheep roam the pastures.

But an abundance of natural beauty is not what brought the Mongolian warriors to this land of broad valleys in China, next to present-day Kazakhstan.

The Chahar made the long journey in horse and camel caravans in the 18th century, under orders from the Qianlong Emperor and his court in Beijing. Qianlong, one of the greatest of the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty, cobbled together a vast multiethnic Chinese empire through conquests and alliances. Mongolian khanates, armies and tribes fell under his rule, often after vicious battles.

Qianlong dispatched a Chahar army from near the Mongolian steppe to newly conquered territories along the empire’s northwestern rim, where the Chahar were to form a border garrison.

“My father was here from a young age,” said Xiu Yun, 48, a manager at a modest resort hotel built around the hot springs in the town center. “His parents were from here too. My family members are descendants of the Mongolians who came under the Qing. We Mongols are very proud of this history.”

Continue reading the main story
She added: “I can speak Mongolian and read and write it. Most Mongolians here can do the same.”

In recent years, Wenquan officials have begun highlighting the town’s Mongolian heritage. Street signs have both Chinese and Mongolian script. A new concrete mural on the main road next to the hot springs hotel depicts the ancient caravans that traveled west. A museum at the other end of the main street has a large map showing the three waves of Chahar migration. On one wall, a poem called “The Door of the Rainbow” pays tribute to that history.

For centuries, the Chahar claimed to have a seal from Genghis Khan, which conferred legitimacy. So their alliance with the Qing — they were incorporated into the banner system after a failed rebellion in 1675 — was important for the Manchu rulers. It bolstered Manchu standing in the eyes of other Mongolian tumen, or tribes.

“From Genghis Khan to the emperors of the Yuan dynasty to the khans of the Chahar tumen, there was this single lineage,” said Oyunbilig Borjigidai, a professor of Manchu and Mongolian history at Renmin University of China in Beijing. “Its status and influence were much greater than those of the other tumen.”

Another Mongolian group, the Dzungars, ruled northwest Xinjiang, on the Central Asian frontier, before Qianlong decimated them in a famous series of campaigns. Qianlong then wanted to build garrisons on the borderlands, and so armies from the Chahar, Xibe and Solon ethnic groups were dispatched.

“They truly played an important role in helping the Qing court establish a foothold in the northwestern border area and develop it,” Mr. Oyunbilig said of the Chahar. “They have a reason to be proud.”

Wenquan is part of the Bortala Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, the base of the Chahar in Xinjiang. (Their ancestral home is in present-day Inner Mongolia, where the majority of Chahar in China live.) The prefecture is one of several scattered enclaves that arose from Qing-era garrisons. Farther south, in the fertile Ili Valley, is another — that of the Xibe, who speak a language similar to Manchu and are one of China’s 56 official ethnic groups.

Wenquan is a quiet town beyond a pass north of Sayram Lake, the largest alpine lake in Xinjiang and where Kazakh herders graze sheep and offer horseback rides to tourists in summer. Wenquan has one short commercial strip — at one end is the hot springs hotel and at the other is the museum.

Half the town is taken up by a bingtuan, a term for an agricultural production center that originated in the Mao era as a garrison project of the People’s Liberation Army. It is a modern-day variation on the mission of the Chahar.

It is hard to tell where the town ends and the bingtuan begins. The two merge seamlessly. The bingtuan, the 88th Regiment of the Fifth Division, has streets, homes, schools, shops and office buildings.

While on a reporting trip to Xinjiang, I drove to Wenquan to spend a night here. I was curious about the town because my father, as a member of the Chinese Army, had been posted here from 1955 to 1957 to work in an earlier bingtuan, as an aide to the party chief.

He bunked with two others in a room with a coal stove. The town had a dirt road lined with homes. There were no shops then. The hot springs bathhouse stood alone, not as part of a hotel, and my father enjoyed dips there. The mud-walled home where my father lived was uphill at one end of the road, on the grounds of the headquarters of the Fifth Regiment.

“Every day, I would look at the mountains,” he told me. “Someone said, ‘You cross the mountains and you are in Russia.’ Kazakhstan was on the other side.”

Wenquan is a palimpsest of military conquest. In a sense, my father and the handful of other ethnic Han soldiers posted here in the first decade of Communist Party rule were spiritual descendants of the Chahar.

Though there were Mongolians in the area back then, most people in town and in the surrounding hills were Kazakhs, and they remain the largest ethnic group in Wenquan. On occasion, my father would ride a horse for a day to visit nomads in the high pastures and spend a night or two in their felt yurts. He learned to speak some Kazakh.

To visit Mongolians in the nearby prefecture seat of Bortala, my father and his comrades rode in a horse-drawn wagon. In Wenquan, there was no emphasis on Mongolian language or culture. After my trip, my father was surprised to hear of the displays of Mongolian culture I had seen.

Though the party’s ethnic policies are contentious, there has been a revived interest in some parts of China in the languages and traditions of smaller ethnic groups. Sometimes this has strong support by the national government, as in the case of the Manchus. In other instances, ordinary people or community officials drive the revival.

“There is this new sub-ethnic consciousness,” said Peter C. Perdue, a historian at Yale University who has studied the Qing conquest of Xinjiang. “The Chahar want to say they are a separate ethnic group, not mixed in with the other Mongolians there.”

“You hear about the Uighurs all the time there,” he added, referring to a Turkic-speaking group in Xinjiang. “The other minority people are also trying to regenerate a sense of their identity, in a somewhat different sense than the way the People’s Republic of China assigns ethnic labels to people.”

The evening I stayed in town, Mongolians, Kazakh, Han and Uighurs all showed up at the bathhouse in the hot springs hotel. In recent years, violence involving Uighurs and Han has erupted in oasis towns in southern Xinjiang, the Uighur heartland, and in the regional capital, Urumqi. There did not appear to be much tension in Wenquan.

Ms. Xiu, the hotel’s manager, has an uncle who writes Chahar poems for local newspapers and plays the topshur, a two-stringed instrument popular among western Mongolian tribes. The uncle, Madega, 66, runs a local company that makes the instrument. He lives with a daughter, Wuyunhua’er.

“The Chahar dialect is still widely spoken in Chahar families in Wenquan,” the daughter said. “But over all, I can’t say how well preserved the Chahar culture is in Wenquan.”

For the last decade, the prefecture has held a summertime festival called Naadam, in which Mongolians celebrate traditional sports that include wrestling, archery and horse racing. Wenquan began hosting it about four years ago. Last year, officials changed the name from Naadam, a common Mongolian word for such a festival, to the Hot Springs Festival, in a bid to attract more tourists.

But in other ways, the festival has been expanding the spotlight on the area’s Mongolian heritage.

At last summer’s event, Ms. Xiu said, “local Kazakhs and Mongolians sold costumes, handicrafts and relics for the first time, and this was popular with tourists.”

Vanessa Piao contributed research.

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