1 VOLKSWAGEN TO SPEND $50 BILLION ON ELECTRIC CAR 'OFFENSIVE' WWW.CNN.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      2 HABITABILITY OF MONGOLIA UNDER THREAT FROM CLIMATE CHANGE WWW.ADELAIDENOW.COM.AU PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      3 THE SURPRISE FUEL FLOWS SPARKED BY A RAGING U.S.-CHINA TRADE WAR WWW.BLOOMBERG.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      4 MONGOLIA’S COAL EXPORTS IN FIRST 10 MONTHS UP 10PC WWW.XINHUANET.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      5 ABOUT 100 THOUSAND PASSENGERS PASSED THROUGH MONGOLIA-XINJIANG BORDER WWW.MONTSAME.MN PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      6 CHINA'S ‘ONE BELT, ONE ROAD’ GLOBAL INVESTMENT PLAN MAPPED OUT WWW.RT.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      7 ASIA SUMMIT ENDS IN HISTORIC FAILURE WWW.CNN.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      8 INAUGURATION OF SHERAB KYETSEL LING INSTITUTE WWW.DALAILAMA.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/19      9 US-MONGOLIA 'THIRD NEIGHBOR TRADE ACT' ON THE WAY WWW.THEDIPLOMAT.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/17      10 CHINA'S FIGHT AGAINST SMOG MAKES PALLADIUM 2018'S BEST METAL WWW.MINING.COM PUBLISHED:2018/11/17      БНХАУ-ЫН ОЛОН УЛСЫН ИМПОРТЫН ҮЗЭСГЭЛЭН БНХАУ-ОХУ-ЫН БИЗНЕСИЙН ХАРИЛЦААГ ӨРГӨЖҮҮЛЛЭЭ WWW.MONTSAME.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     АМЧАМ МОНГОЛ 2018 ОНЫ ЖИЛИЙН ТАЙЛАНГИЙН ХУРЛАА АМЖИЛТТАЙ ЗОХИОН БАЙГУУЛЛАА WWW.IKON.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     ЗЭСИЙН ЗАХ ЗЭЭЛД ЦОЙЛУУЛАХ ХАРМАГТАЙ WWW.DNN.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     ГАШУУНСУХАЙТ АВТО ЗАМ ХХК: БЯМБА ГАРАГТ ГАШУУНСУХАЙТ-ГАНЦМОД БООМТООР НҮҮРС ТЭЭВРИЙН 99 АВТОМАШИН НЭВТЭРСЭН WWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     НЭГ АЖИЛТАНД НОГДОХ ДНБ III УЛИРЛЫН БАЙДЛААР 3.7 САЯ ТӨГРӨГ БОЛЖ ӨСЖЭЭ WWW.BLOOMBERGTV.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     ХЯТАДЫН ХЯЗГААРЛАЛТ $300-450 САЯЫГ ГАЦААНА WWW.ZGM.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     АЗЕРБАЙЖАН УЛС МАНАЙД ДАРС НИЙЛҮҮЛЭХЭЭР БОЛЛОО WWW.UNUUDUR.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     ШУУДАН, ХАРИЛЦАА ХОЛБООНЫ САЛБАРЫН ОРЛОГО ОНЫ ЭХНИЙ 9 САРД 21.4 ХУВИАР ӨСӨВ WWW.GOGO.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/19     БНСУ-ЫН АЖ АХУЙН НЭГЖҮҮДИЙН АУТСОРСИНГ ЗАХИАЛГЫГ ГҮЙЦЭТГЭХ ЗАЛУУЧУУДЫГ СОНГОН, ШАЛГАРУУЛНА WWW.UNUUDUR.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/17     НҮҮРСНИЙ ЭКСПОРТ 10 ХУВИАР ӨСӨЖ, 31.3 САЯ ТОНН БОЛОВ WWW.GOGO.MN НИЙТЭЛСЭН:2018/11/17    

Events

Name organizer Where
Frontier's "Invest Mongolia Tokyo 2018" Frontier Securities Tokyo Japan
"Open to Export" ICC WTO International business award ICC WTO London

NEWS

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Mongol TV Goes Live with OTT Service Using Brightcove OTT Flow www.finanzen.at

BOSTON and ULAANBAATAR, Mongolia, March 19, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Brightcove (NASDAQ: BCOV), the leading provider of cloud services for video, announced that Mongol TV, Mongolia's leading free to air TV channel, has launched ORI TV, a new OTT streaming service utilising Brightcove OTT Flow, powered by Accedo. ORI TV is the first and only Mongolian language OTT service delivering on-demand and live TV content to viewers worldwide.

ORI TV was developed by Mongol TV with an ambition to provide a one-stop destination for its viewers to stream local TV content including live events, sports, entertainment, festivals and local versions of US franchise shows such as The Voice Mongolia, Mongolia's Got Talent and Shark Tank Mongolia. The service is available via subscription, on the web, iOS, and Android.

"Our ambition with ORI TV was to delight our viewers with the best live and on-demand OTT video streaming experience and we knew that only a market leader in OTT TV solutions could power that kind of experience. Therefore, it was an easy decision to select Brightcove because of their OTT Flow solution, which simplified the complexities associated with OTT streaming and accelerated our time to market. Brightcove's OTT Flow came equipped with all of the features we were looking for: ease of use and setup, optimised for any device, stunning user interface, affordable price point, and a strong Asia-based support team," Bat-Erdene Gankhuyag, CEO of Mongol TV, said.

"We are thrilled to be partnering with Mongol TV as our first customer in Mongolia to launch an OTT service in the country. This is another example of a great use case for Brightcove as we expand our customer base across the Asia region,"Ben Morrell, General Manager, Asia, Brightcove, said. "We are seeing a shift in which where broadcasters are starting to package live and on-demand content into their OTT services. Our out-of-the-box OTT Flow solution helped Mongol TV launch its service in record time and with little upfront cost. As a result, broadcasters like Mongol TV can focus on what they do best - bringing the best in TV programming to viewers worldwide."

Brightcove is deeply focused on helping media organizations deliver amazing viewing experiences, as well as increasing revenue and reducing the costs associated with online video. OTT Flow, which enables media organizations like ORI TV to rapidly deploy high-quality live and on-demand video across platforms, addresses all three of these objectives. ORI TV monetizes its SVOD content using subscriber management technology from Cleeng, which OTT Flow utilizes as its subscriber management functionality.

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US-educated Yi Gang becomes head of China's central bank www.bbc.com

US-educated economist Yi Gang has been named the next governor of China's central bank, replacing Zhou Xiaochuan.

Mr Yi joined the People's Bank of China (PBOC) 20 years ago and has been its deputy governor since 2008.

His appointment is being seen as one of ensured continuity as Beijing continues to try and rein in growing debt and limit risky financial practices.

The announcement was made on the second-last day of the annual sitting of the National People's Congress.

Mr Yi will take over a central bank tasked with the ongoing reform of China's financial landscape, including encouraging foreign investment into the financial markets, and monetary policy reform.

But he will also take over a bank with new powers.

Last week, as part of sweeping changes to China's central government structure, the NPC said China's central bank would have increased control over making new laws and regulations for the banking and insurance sectors.

It was also announced that a newly formed banking and insurance super regulator, formed out of a merger between the Banking Regulatory Commission and the China Insurance Regulatory Commission, would oversee all of China's banking and insurance sector - and would effectively report into the PBOC.

The reforms to the banking and finance regulatory systems will see the PBOC become one of the most powerful bodies in the country.

However, unlike the United States and other large democracies, China's central bank does not operate independently of the government, and so Mr Yi will ultimately report into President Xi Jinping.

At the beginning of the NPC earlier this month, China approved the removal of the two-term limit on the presidency, effectively allowing Xi Jinping to remain in power for life.

Mr Yi has a degree in economics from Beijing University, together with a master's degree and PhD in economics from the University of Illinois, US.

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Why some economists are concerned over potential stock market bubble www.theubpost.mn

For the Mongolian Stock Exchange (MSE), 2018 has already been a wildly successful year with the highest growth in 27 years, an IPO that was oversubscribed 16.5 times over and the first ever dual-listing request on the exchange filed by a Toronto-listed company. The rapid growth of the stock market has been encouraging for not only MSE but the Mongolian economy as a whole. However, some economists have begun to raise concern over a potential bubble on the stock market.

But what is an economic bubble? The term is used a lot when explaining international financial crises such as the 2008 US market crash. Essentially, a bubble is an economic cycle which sees a rapid escalation of asset prices (stock, housing, etc.) followed by a contraction. The prices of the asset consistently increase to a large amount until investors are no longer willing to buy it, causing a massive selloff and subsequent deflation of the bubble.

The history of economic bubbles dates back to the 17th century, where a flower essentially caused the collapse of the Dutch economy. Considered to be one of the earliest documented cases of an economic bubble, the Tulip mania saw a boom in demand of tulips as the first one was imported into the Dutch Empire from the Ottoman Empire.

Demand for the flower exploded as buyers banked on the idea of selling the flowers at a higher price in the future. The expectation that the prices of tulips would continually increase created the first documented case of a speculative bubble.

Rare varieties of the tulip popped up on the market, driving prices even higher. Some people were even trading in their land or houses for rare tulips. The bubble finally burst in 1637 when a buyer failed to show up for a large purchase which acted as a wake up call that the prices of tulips were unsustainable. The bubble finally burst and led to many people to lose considerable amounts of money.

Seeing as Mongolia’s stock market is a relatively young and underdeveloped, the country’s experience with economic bubbles are mainly exclusive to foreign investment in the mining sector.

On the stock market, bubbles usually form due to a change in investor behavior, which Mongolia is currently in the process of. A large number of people have increasingly banked on the stock market, evidenced by 10,000 new accounts created in just the month of February at MSE.

Add in the fact that Erdenes Tavan Tolgoi is about to register 2.5 million Mongolians as shareholders and will likely authorize secondary market trading soon, the activation of the stock market is increasing rapidly.

The last two IPOs on MSE, ITools and LendMN, both set records for subscription. In addition to being the first information communication technology company on MSE, ITools saw their IPO oversubscribed three times over. Riding the wave of momentum, LendMN’s IPO was oversubscribed 16.5 times over, shattering ITools IPO.

The fact that LendMN offered 12.5 percent of its shares to the public to raise 2.5 billion MNT but received orders totaling over 40 billion MNT is a signal of the increased demand in the stock market.

One of the major issues that economists bring up when citing a potential bubble on the stock market is the fact that share liquidity has worsened on Mongolia’s stock market. Share liquidity is the ability to trade a substantial amount of a financial asset at close to current market prices.

On the Australian Securities Exchange Glossary, chief market analyst Michael Kemp explains that share liquidity refers to the “ease” by which shares can be traded. There are two defining characteristics for this ease, one of which is speed or how fast a stock can be sold on the secondary market.

The second is price. In order to be qualified is liquid, a stock must be able to be sold without significantly lowering the price.

The share market liquidity of stocks traded on MSE in 2017 were calculated using average daily trading volumes. The result was that stocks in 2017 had liquidity of 3.2 percent, down 0.1 percent from 2016.

In terms of market capitalization, MSE had a dramatic surge of one trillion MNT in a matter of one year. By the end of 2017, market capitalization reached 2.4 trillion MNT, a 65.6 percent increase year on year.

Despite the massive growth in numbers, the Financial Regulatory Commission (FRC) itself has raised concern over the decrease in liquidity, confirming the possibility of a bubble on the stock market.

The concentration of shares into the hands of a small group of investors has also been mentioned as an obstacle to improving share liquidity by FRC. A number of publically traded companies on MSE only trade up to five percent of their shares on MSE. FRC has tried to diversify this concentration by actively encouraging companies to trade at least 30 percent of their company on MSE.

FRC believes this will help improve the transparency and openness of a company, leading to a better share liquidity. In connection to this, And Energy and ITools both offered more than 30 percent of their company on exchange.

Another important factor in improving share liquidity and avoiding a bubble is not getting caught up in the volume growth on MSE. It is more important to focus on the quality of the stocks being offered on the market, said FRC.

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Invitation: Invest Mongolia HK on April 12 www.mongolianbusinessdatabase.com

Frontier Securities is pleased to invite you to attend Invest Mongolia Hong Kong on April 12, 2018.

The venue will be at SPRG, 24F, Tower One, Admiralty Centre, Hong Kong

We are hosting this event in HK for the first time given the improved economic situation in Mongolia and the stronger interest from HK to invest in Mongolia.

Below are the topics to be discussed at the conference.

The update of the IMF Program and the outlook of the Mongolian Economy in 2018
The action plan of the Government in the next two years and the areas that benefit most
The successful refinancing of the Sovereign Debt and the opportunities to invest in Corporate, Municipal and Bank Debts
The Government plan of Privatizing SOEs and listing the shares of ErdenesTavan Tolgoi and others to HKSE
The policies of the Government to attract foreign investors
Invest Mongolia is one the of the largest events on Mongolia, which serves as a platform of bringing in people from the Government, key industries' players, financial institutions, global investors and medias where they get a chance to talk about several socio-political and economic development.

This year will be particularly important to attend because ETT, the largest coal miner in Mongolia is interested in going public in HKEX. Hence, we anticipate lots of business opportunities in the next few months between HK and Mongolia.

So, please SAVE THE DATE for the events. You can see the agenda, list of speakers and other information at https://www.frontier-conference.com/hk/

In addition you can register online at the events via the below links.

https://www.frontier-conference.com/hk/registration/

The registration is free of charge.

Invest Mongolia 2018
Frontier Securities

Tel: +976 7575-5520
E-mail: conference@frontier.mn
Website: https://www.frontier-conference.com/hk/

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Development of robotics demand multiple professions from employee www.ubinfo.mn

Preceded from the era of electronics and information technology, the Fourth Industrial Revolution, best regarded as the digital revolution, has been cultivating almost every industry in every country since the middle of the last century. As stated by Klaus Schwab, the First Industrial Revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production. The Second used electric power to create mass production. The Third used electronics and information technology to automate production. Now, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is fusing the technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres. Amid the ever-changing world that is advancing towards automation and global interconnectivity, Mongolia is taking a step towards the inevitable transformation. Several companies have adapted innovative ideas and models that could reshape the industry; for instance, Mongol Basalt LLC’s basalt stone extraction technology and nanofibers of Best Buidan LLC. However, the policy makers, producers and innovators agree that the industrialization 4.0 will require more vocational workers and engineers. This will increase demands for professions based on mathematics, chemistry and physics, as well as educational system reform. Presently, only one-fifth of high school graduates pursue vocational education, which is highly insufficient for keeping up with the fast-changing environment.

In addition, the large use of robotics is requiring new forms of collaboration, multidisciplinary studies and hybrid professions from employees. With an aim to accelerate the public adaptation to this rapid revolution, the Vocational Education and Training Partnership (VETP), a project being implemented by the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of Mongolia and German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, held a consultative forum and training yesterday. One of the key goals of the event was to sign a MoU on establishing professional council of mechatronics, one of the growing field of multidisciplinary studies that combines electronics and mechanical engineering, at the Polytechnic College of Mining Energy (PCME) in Darkhan-Uul Aimag. The signing of MoU confirmed the giant demand for mechatronic engineers as 11 national companies, such as Gobi, Erel and Oyu Tolgoi JSCs, were involved in it. “The demand for mechatronic engineers is very high because the profession will be required in every line of computer-controlled production,” highlighted one of the mechatronics teacher of PCME. In terms of either quality or quantity, the VETP project underlined that Mongolia’s training market is currently unable to satisfy the technical staff need in mineral resource sector and in the upstream and downstream industries, particularly in electrical, construction and mechanical occupations. This is driven by the lack of studies available for high schoolers that could indicate the labour market trend in the longer-term. Although professional studies are accessible for the young, they are mostly prepared for specified sectors and temporary demand.

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Forty-five U.S. trade groups urge Trump to avoid tariffs against China www.reuters.com

WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Forty-five U.S. trade associations representing some of the largest companies in the country are urging President Donald Trump not to impose tariffs on China, warning it would be “particularly harmful” to the U.S. economy and consumers.

The organizations said in a letter sent to Trump on Sunday that potential tariffs on China would raise prices on consumer goods, kill jobs and drive down financial markets.

The letter marks the latest in a growing rift between Trump and the business community on trade policies, as the president has begun to take more aggressive steps he says are needed to protect domestic industry.

“We urge the administration not to impose tariffs and to work with the business community to find an effective, but measured, solution to China’s protectionist trade policies and practices that protects American jobs and competitiveness,” the groups wrote.

“Tariffs would be particularly harmful,” they said.

The groups called on Trump to work with trade allies to push for changes to China’s policies. The business groups said while they had serious concerns about China’s approach to trade, unilateral tariffs by the United States would only separate the country from allies, and encourage them to replace the U.S. business presence in China when Beijing retaliates.

Trade associations publicly pushing back include the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Retail Federation and the Information Technology Industry Council.

The Trump administration is said to be preparing tariffs against Chinese information technology, telecoms and consumer products in an attempt to force changes in Beijing’s intellectual property and investment practices.

The Republican president recently announced plans to impose tariffs on certain steel and aluminum imports, despite opposition from some business sectors.

The groups also called on Trump to allow industry experts to comment on the economic impact of any changes in trade policy before the measures take effect.

“We urge the administration to take measured, commercially meaningful actions consistent with international obligations that benefit U.S. exporters, importers, and investors, rather than penalize the American consumer and jeopardize recent gains in American competitiveness,” they said.

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Russia election: Vladimir Putin wins by big margin www.bbc.com

Vladimir Putin will lead Russia for another six years, after securing an expected victory in the presidential election.

With most of the ballots counted, he had received about 76% of the vote, the central election commission said.

The main opposition leader, Alexei Navalny, was barred from the race.

Addressing a rally in Moscow after the early results were declared, Mr Putin said voters had "recognised the achievements of the last few years".

Speaking to reporters after his win, he laughed off a question about running again in another six years.

"What you are saying is a bit funny. Do you think that I will stay here until I'm 100 years old? No!" he said.

The scale of victory - which had been widely predicted - appears to be a marked increase in his share of the vote from 2012, when he won 64%.

Mr Putin's nearest competitor, Pavel Grudinin, had received about 12% so far, according to the central election commission.

Mr Grudinin is a millionaire communist, but the race also included a former reality television host, Ksenia Sobchak (2%), and veteran nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky (6%).

A state exit poll put the turnout at over 60%. Mr Putin's campaign had hoped for a large turnout, to give him the strongest possible mandate.

His campaign team said it was an "incredible victory".

"The percentage that we have just seen speaks for itself. It's a mandate which Putin needs for future decisions, and he has a lot of them to make," a spokesman told Russia's Interfax.

In some areas, free food and discounts in local shops were on offer near polling stations.

Mr Navalny was excluded from the election because of an embezzlement conviction that he said was manufactured by the Kremlin.

In his first reaction to the news, Mr Navalny indicated he had been unable to contain his anger.

"Now is the season of Lent. I took it upon myself never to get angry and not to raise my voice. Oh well, I'll try again next year," he tweeted.

During polling day, independent election monitoring group Golos reported hundreds of irregularities, including:

Voting papers found in some ballot boxes before polls opened
Observers were barred from entering some polling stations
Some people were bussed in amid suspicion of forced voting
Webcams at polling stations were obstructed by balloons and other obstacles

Videos taken from the election commission's live stream of polling stations also appeared to show some instances of officials stuffing ballots into boxes.

In Dagestan, one election official said he was prevented from doing his job by a crowd of men who blocked the ballot box.

But Ella Pamfilova, head of the Central Electoral Commission, said no serious violations had been registered yet.

After his victory was all but confirmed, Mr Putin addressed the crowds at a planned rally
"We have analysed and monitored everything we could, everything that has arrived. Thank goodness, it's all rather modest so far," she told a commission meeting while speaking about violations.

She had earlier said that anyone involved in violations would be caught.

Sunday's vote was also the first in Crimea since Russia seized the region from Ukraine. Mr Putin was scheduled to speak at a rally scheduled for the fourth anniversary of the annexation - the same day as the election.

The annexation was bitterly contested by Kiev and ratcheted up tensions between Russia and the West. Russians living in Ukraine were unable to take part in Sunday's vote because access to Russian diplomatic missions was blocked by the Kiev government.

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Oil refinery feasibility study complete www.gogo.mn

The Ambassador of India to Mongolia, Suresh Babu, announced that the Indian company Engineers India Limited has completed a detailed feasibility study for the construction of a petroleum refinery that will be built on 150 hectares in Altashiree soum of Dornogobi Province.

The feasibility study will be submitted to the Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry as soon as it is assessed by independent experts. The refinery's construction will be financed by a loan of one billion USD from Indian Export-Import Bank.

It is estimated that the refinery could generate an annual revenue of 1.2 billion USD with 43 million USD in profit, which will be enough to cover its initial investment expenses within 8 to 10 years. Annually, Mongolia imports 1 to 1.2 tons of fuel valued at one billion USD. Once the feasibility study is approved the project will be carried out by the state-owned company Mongolian Oil Refinery.

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Puting congratulates Mongolian President on his birthday www.news.mn

Russian President Vladimir Putin sent a letter of congratulation to Kh.Battulga, President of Mongolia on his 55th birthday on 3 March.

The letter said, in part:

‘I remember with pleasure our effective business meetings in Budapest and Vladivostok. I hope to continue cooperating with you in matters concerning well-being between the nations of Mongolia and Russia. I wish you strong health as an athlete, happiness and success.'

Both presidents are proficient in judo.

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Rio Tinto's Mongolian subsidiary has filed a notice of dispute with the Mongolian government. www.afr.com

Rio Tinto and the Mongolian government could be headed for international arbitration, after the Rio subsidiary that owns the Oyu Tolgoi copper mine filed a formal notice of dispute against the developing nation.

The dispute relates to Mongolia's recent claim for $US155 million in taxes that the government believes were not paid between 2013 and 2015, and it comes after months of rising tensions between Rio and the developing nation.

Rio's exposure to the Mongolian mine comes through its 50.8 per cent stake in Canadian company Turquoise Hill Resources (TRQ), which in turn owns 66 per cent of the Mongolian company that owns the mine; Oyu Tolgoi LLC.

The latter company agreed to pay $US4.8 million of the tax claim, but filed the notice of dispute on Thursday over the remainder of the claim.

"On March 15, 2018, Oyu Tolgoi filed a notice of dispute with the Government of Mongolia under the Investment Agreement," said TRQ on Friday morning.

Dispute resolution is covered by chapter 14 of the 2009 Investment Agreement for Oyu Tolgoi, which is the seminal legal and financial contract between Rio, its subsidiaries and the Mongolian government.

"The notice of dispute filing is the first step in the process and includes a 60 working day negotiation period. If the parties are unable to reach a resolution during the 60 working day period, the dispute can be referred to international arbitration," said TRQ.

According to the 2009 investment agreement, the arbitration must take place in the London Court of International Arbitration, be conducted in English language and be in keeping with the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.

"The arbitral award shall be final and binding on the parties," says chapter 14 of the 2009 investment agreement.

TRQ declined to record a provision for the tax claim on Friday, but noted that the sums involved would be material if forced to pay.

In a generic statement of corporate risks filed by TRQ on Friday, it conceded it may struggle to enforce the outcome of any arbitration proceeding if Mongolia chose to ignore the terms of the 2009 investment agreement.

"To the extent that the government of Mongolia does not observe the terms and conditions of the investment agreement and the underground plan, there may be limitations on the company's ability to enforce the terms of the investment agreement and the underground plan against the government of Mongolia, which is a sovereign nation, regardless of the outcome of any arbitration proceeding," said TRQ.

"If the terms of the investment agreement and or the underground plan cannot be enforced effectively, the company could be deprived of substantial rights and benefits arising from its investment in Oyu Tolgoi with little or no recourse against the government of Mongolia for fair and reasonable compensation."

The dispute comes almost four years after TRQ filed a similar notice of dispute against the Mongolian government over the government's claim for $US130 million in unpaid taxes.

Mongolia settled on that occasion for a $US30 million payment.

Rio, TRQ and Oyu Tolgoi have had a rough start to 2018, with copper exports being interrupted by a blockade at the Chinese border.

Mongolia also tore up a power supply agreement in February, which had allowed Oyu Tolgoi to source power from China. Rio must now find a way to source power for the mine from within Mongolia within four years, in a change that could add to the costs of the project.

First production of copper concentrate from Oyu Tolgoi's open pit came in 2013, but most of the mine's value lies in a giant underground expansion that is now under way and is expected to deliver copper from about 2021.

That expansion is expected to cost $US5.3 billion and will make Oyu Tolgoi the world's third biggest copper producer by 2025, when the underground mine reaches peak production rates.

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